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Table 1 Teachers’ ratings of participants and Mann–Whitney analysis (N = 81)

From: Causes of academic and behavioral difficulties among Japanese-Brazilian students: cognitive, linguistic and parental education factors

  A: Typical B: At risk C: Diagnostic group Mann–Whitney c
  (n = 68) (n = 6) (n = 7)
  M Range SD M Range SD M Range SD
Age (years) 9.43 6.2–11.9 1.65 8.98 6.2–11.5 2.07 8.86 7.3–10.5 1.24 A = B = C
Academic performancea 4.62 2–10 1.64 3.33 2–5 1.21 4.43 2–8 2.23 A > Bd,
A = C,
B = C
Behavioral problemsb 55.83 41–76 8.61 60.83 53–67 5.15 66.86 58–80 7.36 A < B < Cd
  1. aThe teachers rated the current academic performance of students using a five-point scale: 1) far below grade level; 2) somewhat below grade level; 3) at grade level; 4) somewhat above grade level; and 5) far above grade level. The subjects rated were mathematics and Japanese language (academic performance range 2–10). bThe clinical/borderline level of behavioral problems was set as TRF T-score ≥60 points.
  2. c.The Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann–Whitney) test was conducted.
  3. dThe p-values (<0.05) shown are the results of one-tailed tests.