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Table 3 Cognitive and language proficiency and environment of participants of Typical Group (N = 68)

From: Causes of academic and behavioral difficulties among Japanese-Brazilian students: cognitive, linguistic and parental education factors

Variable M Range SD
Age (years) 9.43 6.2–11.9 1.65
Cognitive capacitya
 Spatial Span 5.46 3–9 1.45
 Stockings of Cambridge 6.49 3–10 1.90
 Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shifting 8.10 7–9 0.93
 Pattern Recognition Memory 86.95 50–100 9.49
 Digit Span
 Japanese 11.52 4–22 3.39
 Portuguese 9.88 3–15 2.65
Language proficiency
 Japanese
 PVT-R score 32.13 0–77 9.79
 PVT-R age 6.60 3–12.3 2.63
 J. COSS 67.78 29–79 12.8
Portuguese
 TVf-usp 91.54 28–131 22.9
 Test of Grammatical Comprehension of Portuguese Sentencesb 17.21 2–20 3.70
Number of years of parental education (years)    
 Mother 11.23 8–15 2.08
 Father 9.84 8–15 1.78
  1. aCognitive capacity was examined using CANTAB tasks. Digit span was examined using the Japanese and Portuguese versions of the WISC-III.
  2. bThis test was created in Japan and was not used in Brazil.
  3. CANTAB: Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery;
  4. PVT-R: Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised;
  5. J.COSS: Japanese Test for Comprehension of Syntax and Semantics;
  6. TVf-usp: Teste de Vocabulario auditivo por Figuras USP;
  7. WISC-III: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Students-Third Edition. SD: standard deviation