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Table 1 Comparison of adult (L2) literacy education in Canada, Belgium, and Luxembourg

From: Literacy education for low-educated second language learning adults in multilingual contexts: the case of Luxembourg

  Canada Belgium Luxembourg
Dutch-speaking community French-speaking community
1. Types of multilingualism Territorial bilingualism Territorial multilingualism Functional multilingualism
2. Implementation of L2 literacy training By each province and territory By each language community (the Flemish and the French communities) On the governmental and private levels
3. Framework of L2 literacy training Integrated into Adult Basic Education (ABE) Independent of general ABE Integrated into ABE Integrated into Additional Adult Education
4. Coordinating institution for L2 literacy training LINC (Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada) on federal level Dutch Language Houses on governmental level Private organizations and networks Mainly private organizations, except for one course at the National language center
5. Public discussion or survey LSUDA (1989) Round table conferences (1997, 2002) Lire et Ecrire reports Not available
IALS (1994)
IALSS (2003)
6. Guideline for L2 literacy curriculum Canadian Language Benchmarks Decisions made at the Round table conferences: e.g., CEFR as a common reference for language assessment (1993), Cognitive skills test (2002) Not available Not available
7. Placement test Available Available Available Not available
8. Skills taught at adult literacy courses • Literacy skills • Literacy skills Depend on course organizing bodies Not known
• Numeracy skills • Numeracy skills
• Pre-reading skills  
• Study skills